Thermal Integrity Profiling (TIP):
Thermal Integrity Profiling (TIP) is a non-destructive and non-invasive testing method used on drilled shafts, augercast piles, and other cast-in-place foundations, to examine their integrity and quality. This is accomplished by installing one or more Thermal Wire® Cables, each containing one temperature node per foot of length, along the rebar reinforcement structure prior to installation. Immediately following the installation of the deep foundation, a Thermal Acquisition Port® (TAP) is connected to each Thermal Wire Cable, which then begins recording thermal data from each individual temperature node along the length of the Thermal Wire Cable® at programmed time intervals. Thermal data is examined over time of the curing process to search for any temperature irregularities such as any bulging, necking, or improper reinforcement cage alignment, whereas any low curing temperatures can indicate necking and high curing temperatures can indicate bulging. This can be displayed in a full 3D model using the TIP® software.
Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL Testing):
Cross-Hole Sonic Logging is performed on drilled shafts to check the concrete consistency and drilled shaft construction quality. The CSL method uses ultrasonic signals which are transmitted and received between access tubes along the length of the shaft. The access tubes are typically tied to the rebar cage, filled with water, and cast into the shaft during concrete placement. The consistency of concrete is evaluated from the arrival time of the signal. In general, when the wave arrival time along the shaft is consistent, along with strong signal energy, the shaft is said to contain good quality concrete. Where the signal arrival time is delayed, lower quality concrete may be present. Single-hole Sonic Logging (SSL Testing) can also be performed on smaller diameter shafts and/or augercast piles.
Pile Integrity Testing (PIT Testing):
Low-Strain Pile Integrity Testing (PIT Testing) can be performed relatively easily and quickly on several types of deep foundations. The Pulse Echo Method (PEM) is the most common method which requires a single velocity reading collected at the top of the pile. The low-strain impact is applied using a handheld hammer and the pile-top acceleration is measured using a highly-sensitivite accelerometer. The incident wave is reflected at locations of pile non‑uniformities (such as change in cross-sectional area or change in concrete/grout quality), discontinuities (such as a crack or cold joint), and/or the toe of the pile. Interpretation of PIT results include visual inspection of the velocity test records by an experienced engineer.